APIs commonly use pagination to efficiently return a portion of a result instead of every single item, which can have inefficient performance.

The GraphQL spec recommends cursor-based pagination and refers to Relay's Connection Spec for specific implementation details.

Here we show a minimal example of how you can leverage Strawberry's generic Types to build the types required to comply with the relay spec.

import base64
from typing import List, Generic, TypeVar, Optional
import strawberry
from strawberry import UNSET
GenericType = TypeVar("GenericType")
class Connection(Generic[GenericType]):
"""Represents a paginated relationship between two entities This pattern is used when the relationship itself has attributes. In a Facebook-based domain example, a friendship between two people would be a connection that might have a `friendshipStartTime` """
page_info: "PageInfo"
edges: List["Edge[GenericType]"]
class PageInfo:
"""Pagination context to navigate objects with cursor-based pagination Instead of classic offset pagination via `page` and `limit` parameters, here we have a cursor of the last object and we fetch items starting from that one Read more at: - - """
has_next_page: bool
has_previous_page: bool
start_cursor: Optional[str]
end_cursor: Optional[str]
class Edge(Generic[GenericType]):
"""An edge may contain additional information of the relationship. This is the trivial case"""
node: GenericType
cursor: str
class Book:
title: str
author: str
def from_db_model(cls, instance):
"""Adapt this method with logic to map your orm instance to a strawberry decorated class"""
return cls(title=instance.title, author=instance.title)
def build_book_cursor(book: Book):
"""Adapt this method to build an *opaque* ID from an instance"""
bookid = f"{id(book)}".encode("utf-8")
return base64.b64encode(bookid).decode()
Cursor = str
def get_books(first: int = 10, after: Optional[Cursor] = UNSET) -> Connection[Book]:
""" A non-trivial implementation should efficiently fetch only the necessary books after the offset. For simplicity, here we build the list and then slice it accordingly """
after = after if after is not UNSET else None
# Fetch the requested books plus one, just to calculate `has_next_page`
books = [
title=f"Title {x}",
author=f"Author {x}",
for x in range(20)
edges = [
Edge(node=Book.from_db_model(book), cursor=build_book_cursor(book))
for book in books
return Connection(
has_next_page=len(books) > first,
start_cursor=edges[0].cursor if edges else None,
end_cursor=edges[-2].cursor if len(edges) > 1 else None,
edges=edges[:-1] # exclude last one as it was fetched to know if there is a next page
class Query:
books: Connection[Book] = strawberry.field(resolver=get_books)
schema = strawberry.Schema(query=Query)

Name your file and run strawberry server pagination

When you visit the GraphQL URL from your terminal output, you should see something like this:

A view of the GraphiQL interface with an example pagination query

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