As opposed to queries, mutations in GraphQL represent operations that modify server-side data and/or cause side effects on the server. For example, you can have a mutation that creates a new instance in your application or a mutation that sends an email. Like in queries, they accept parameters and can return anything a regular field can, including new types and existing object types. This can be useful for fetching the new state of an object after an update.

Let's improve our books project from the Getting started tutorial and implement a mutation that is supposed to add a book:

import strawberry
# Reader, you can safely ignore Query in this example, it is required by
# strawberry.Schema so it is included here for completeness
class Query:
def hello() -> str:
return "world"
class Mutation:
def add_book(self, title: str, author: str) -> Book:
print(f'Adding {title} by {author}')
return Book(title=title, author=author)
schema = strawberry.Schema(query=Query, mutation=Mutation)

Like queries, mutations are defined in a class that is then passed to the Schema function. Here we create an addBook mutation that accepts a title and an author and returns a Book type.

We would send the following GraphQL document to our server to execute the mutation:

mutation {
addBook(title: "The Little Prince", author: "Antoine de Saint-Exupéry") {

The addBook mutation is a simplified example. In a real-world application mutations will often need to handle errors and communicate those errors back to the client. For example we might want to return an error if the book already exists.

You can checkout our documentation on dealing with errors to learn how to return a union of types from a mutation.

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