In GraphQL you can use subscriptions to stream data from a server. To enable this with Strawberry your server must support ASGI and websockets or use the AIOHTTP integration.

This is how you define a subscription-capable resolver:

import asyncio
from typing import AsyncGenerator
import strawberry
class Query:
def hello(self) -> str:
return "world"
class Subscription:
async def count(self, target: int = 100) -> AsyncGenerator[int, None]:
for i in range(target):
yield i
await asyncio.sleep(0.5)
schema = strawberry.Schema(query=Query, subscription=Subscription)

Like queries and mutations, subscriptions are defined in a class and passed to the Schema function. Here we create a rudimentary counting function which counts from 0 to the target sleeping between each loop iteration.

📝 Note

The return type of count is AsyncGenerator where the first generic argument is the actual type of the response, in most cases the second argument should be left as None (more about Generator typing here).

We would send the following GraphQL document to our server to subscribe to this data stream:

subscription {
count(target: 5)

In this example, the data looks like this as it passes over the websocket:

A view of the data that's been passed via websocket

This is a very short example of what is possible. Like with queries and mutations the subscription can return any GraphQL type, not only scalars as demonstrated here.

Advanced Subscription Patterns

Typically a GraphQL subscription is streaming something more interesting back. With that in mind your subscription function can return one of:

  • AsyncIterator, or
  • AsyncGenerator

Both of these types are documented in PEP-525. Anything yielded from these types of resolvers will be shipped across the websocket. Care needs to be taken to ensure the returned values conform to the GraphQL schema.

The benefit of an AsyncGenerator, over an iterator, is that the complex business logic can be broken out into a separate module within your codebase. Allowing you to keep the resolver logic succinct.

The following example is similar to the one above, except it returns an AsyncGenerator to the ASGI server which is responsible for streaming subscription results until the Generator exits.

import strawberry
import asyncio
import asyncio.subprocess as subprocess
from asyncio import streams
from typing import Any, AsyncGenerator, AsyncIterator, Coroutine, Optional
async def wait_for_call(coro: Coroutine[Any, Any, bytes]) -> Optional[bytes]:
""" wait_for_call calls the supplied coroutine in a wait_for block. This mitigates cases where the coroutine doesn't yield until it has completed its task. In this case, reading a line from a StreamReader; if there are no `\n` line chars in the stream the function will never exit """
return await asyncio.wait_for(coro(), timeout=0.1)
except asyncio.TimeoutError:
async def lines(stream: streams.StreamReader) -> AsyncIterator[str]:
""" lines reads all lines from the provided stream, decoding them as UTF-8 strings. """
while True:
b = await wait_for_call(stream.readline)
if b:
yield b.decode("UTF-8").rstrip()
async def exec_proc(target: int) -> subprocess.Process:
""" exec_proc starts a sub process and returns the handle to it. """
return await asyncio.create_subprocess_exec(
f"for ((i = 0 ; i < {target} ; i++)); do echo $i; sleep 0.2; done",
async def tail(proc: subprocess.Process) -> AsyncGenerator[str, None]:
""" tail reads from stdout until the process finishes """
# Note: race conditions are possible here since we're in a subprocess. In
# this case the process can finish between the loop predicate and the call
# to read a line from stdout. This is a good example of why you need to
# be defensive by using asyncio.wait_for in wait_for_call().
while proc.returncode is None:
async for l in lines(proc.stdout):
yield l
# read anything left on the pipe after the process has finished
async for l in lines(proc.stdout):
yield l
class Query:
def hello() -> str:
return "world"
class Subscription:
async def run_command(self, target: int = 100) -> AsyncGenerator[str, None]:
proc = await exec_proc(target)
return tail(proc)
schema = strawberry.Schema(query=Query, subscription=Subscription)

GraphQL over WebSocket protocols

Strawberry support both the legacy graphql-ws and the newer recommended graphql-transport-ws WebSocket sub-protocols.

📝 Note

The graphql-transport-ws protocols repository is called graphql-ws. However, graphql-ws is also the name of the legacy protocol. This documentation always refers to the protocol names.

Note that the graphql-ws sub-protocol is mainly supported for backwards compatibility. Read the graphql-ws-transport protocols announcement to learn more about why the newer protocol is preferred.

Strawberry allows you to choose which protocols you want to accept. All integrations supporting subscriptions can be configured with a list of subscription_protocols to accept. By default, all protocols are accepted.

from strawberry.aiohttp.views import GraphQLView
from strawberry.subscriptions import GRAPHQL_TRANSPORT_WS_PROTOCOL, GRAPHQL_WS_PROTOCOL
from api.schema import schema
view = GraphQLView(schema, subscription_protocols=[
from strawberry.asgi import GraphQL
from strawberry.subscriptions import GRAPHQL_TRANSPORT_WS_PROTOCOL, GRAPHQL_WS_PROTOCOL
from api.schema import schema
app = GraphQL(schema, subscription_protocols=[

Single result operations

In addition to streaming operations (i.e. subscriptions), the graphql-transport-ws protocol supports so called single result operations (i.e. queries and mutations).

This enables clients to use one protocol and one connection for queries, mutations and subscriptions. Take a look at the protocols repository to learn how to correctly set up the graphql client of your choice.

Strawberry supports single result operations out of the box when the graphql-transport-ws protocol is enabled. Single result operations are normal queries and mutations, so there is no need to adjust any resolvers.

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